Horse and Musket Rules

Horse and Musket Wargames Rules
Last updated 23rd May 2017

UNITS AND FORMATIONS
a)    Close Order Infantry. Units consist of four bases each of four figures, and may adopt one of the following formations:
1.    Line. Comprising one rank of four bases. 
2.    Column. Comprising four ranks of one base.
b)    Light Infantry. Units consist of four bases each of two figures. They deploy in skirmish order (one rank of four bases). 
c)    Heavy Cavalry, Light Cavalry, Dragoons and Tribal Cavalry. Units consist of four bases each of two figures. They deploy in two ranks of two bases.
d)    Artillery. Units consist of a gun and four crew on a single base. Guns are either limbered (denoted by turning the barrel away from the enemy) or deployed (barrel facing the enemy).

UNIT CLASSES

There are four classes of unit:
Elite which can take 5 hits per base.
Average which can take 4 hits per base
Levy which can take 3 hits per base
Rabble which can take 2 hits per base

MOVEMENT UNITS

A series of measuring sticks are used in this game. They are painted to be colour coded as follows:
Very short – yellow (5cm)
Short – green (7.5cm)
Medium – blue (12cm)
Long – red (18cm)
In addition an artillery stick measuring 3 x long is painted red up to 1 x long of its length and yellow for the rest of its length.




SEQUENCE OF PLAY

Each side follows this sequence every turn:
1.    Rally units
2.    Command sequence
3.    Movement
4.    Firing
5.    Hand-to-hand combat.
1) Rally units
 1. A General may attempt to rally hits off any unit that it is in base to base contact with, and which is out of range of enemy fire. Roll a d3 and subtract that number of hits from the unit. A rally can never recover a lost base. Generals may move into place first in this phase, up to long.
2) Command sequence
Before carrying out movement players must activate their Brigade commanders. The activation roll will determine how many moves the units in their Brigade may make.
Roll 2d6:


Result for 1 move
Result for 2 moves
Result for 3 moves
Above Average
0-3
4-8
9-12
Average
0-5
6-10
11-12
Below Average
0-6
7-11
12

A Brigade commander who has been rallying a unit in the rallying phase deducts 2 from the dice roll to account for being distracted from giving orders.
If the Commanding officer is within medium of the Brigade commander, and who is not rallying a unit, adds 2 to the dice roll.
2)
Movement
Step One – declare charges
Step Two – other movement
1.    Measuring movement. All movement is measured from the centre of the unit in a straight line, straight ahead. The unit may pivot on its centre up to 45° either at the beginning or the end of a move.
2.    Normal movement rates. A unit's type and formation affects its normal movement rate, which may be modified by other factors.
Troop Type  
Movement Rate
              Good                            Difficult
Close Order Infantry
Short
Very short
Light Infantry
Medium
Short
Heavy Cavalry 
Long
Medium
Dragoons
Long
Medium
Light Cavalry
Long
Medium
Tribal Cavalry
Long
Long
Limbered Artillery
Medium
Short
Deployed Artillery
No Movement
(may pivot)

Wagons
Medium
Very Short
2.    Turning and wheeling (infantry and cavalry units).
1.    Units may turn up to 45° without penalty. Only one turn is permitted per move.  
2.    If units turn more than 45°, this costs one move. Only one turn is permitted per move.
3.    About turns (180°). Units may about turn at the cost of one move
4.    Units turn by pivoting on their central point.
3.    Turning and wheeling (deployed artillery units). Artillery may pivot in any direction for one move
4.    Changing formation.
1. Artillery takes one move to either limber or deploy and may not relimber unlimber again in the same turn unless horse artillery.
2. All other formation changes take a move
5.    Moving and Firing. Units must surrender a move if they want to fire in the same turn.  
6.    Terrain. This affects units in the ways stated below:
1.   Hills. Do not affect movement.
2.   Rivers. It takes one complete turn to cross a river. The unit moves up to the river’s edge on one turn, is placed in the river on the next turn, and may move out normally in the last turn.
3.   Fields with crops, Hedges and Fences. These count as difficult going
4.   Towns. Only Infantry may enter or leave a town, this counts as difficult going. Any individual town may only contain one unit.
5.   Woods. Only Infantry or cavalry may enter. Treat as difficult going.
7.    Interpenetration. Units may pass through each other if retreating. If they do so both units will suffer one hit. Otherwise no interpenetration is allowed.
8.    Deploying from march column into line. This is a free move where each element in the march column faces right or left and becomes a line. This may be done at the beginning or end of the movement phase and does not count as moving for the firing phase.
9.    Marching. Units in column formation get a free move. Light infantry, light cavalry and tribal cavalry get no march bonus.




The Charge Sequence
1.    Measure the distance between attackers and defenders. If this exceeds the attacker's eligible move, the charge does not take place and the rest of the sequence is ignored.
1.    Only one unit may charge each face of a defending unit (these being front, left flank, right flank, and rear).  
2.    Defenders fire. If a charge takes place against the front face of a defending unit, then the latter may fire against their assailants before contact. All fire is conducted as if at long range.
3.    If the attacker loses a base to defensive fire, it will retire one full move immediately.
4.    Move the units into contact. Resolve all fighting in the hand-to-hand combat phase.
5.    Unit contact. The attacking unit always conforms to straight contact and hits the side of the enemy unit the majority of its frontage contacts.

3) Firing

1. Small Arms.
1.    The ranges of relevant weapons are listed below:
Weapon
Short range
Long Range
Rifle
Short
Long
Musket
Short
Medium
Carbine
Very short
Short
2.    All bases of any unit may normally fire with the following exception:
a.     Units in column never fire.
3.    Units may fire at targets within 45° of their frontal facing.
4.    If the target is in range, roll a die for every eligible base firing. The chances of scoring a hit varies according to the firing unit's formation as listed below:
Firing Unit's Formation
Score Required
Close Order Infantry
4-6
Light Infantry
5-6
Light Cavalry and Tribal Cavalry
6
6.    Subtract -1 for shooting at Long range
7.    Remove a base if the total number of hits for the class are reached (other hits are carried over until the next combat is resolved).
8.    First Fire. The first time a Close Order Infantry unit (not if Levy morale) shoots in the game it may re-reroll all misses.

2.    Artillery.
1.    Artillery units have two range bands: short range is the red area and long range is the yellow area. Both cannot be used in the same turn.
2.    Units may fire at any target within 45° of their frontal facing.
3.    Two dice are rolled for the first target hit at short range and one die is rolled for all units hit at long range. The resulting number is always halved (any fractions should be rounded up).
4.    For every shot roll a die. A hit is scored on a roll of 4-6.
5.    As with small arms fire, a base is removed if four hits are inflicted upon the target
6.    Firing at artillery. Artillery units enjoy a saving roll of 4-6 for each potential hit.
3.    Firing path. Units must be able to trace an unblocked line from the centre of the firing base to the target unit. If any part of a base’s firing path is obscured by intervening terrain or units, it may not fire. Other bases in the unit that have a clear firing path may fire.
4.      Units in Cover. Any unit behind cover rolls a die for every hit inflicted upon it. For every roll of 4-6 a saving roll has been achieved and the hit has no effect.
5.    Overhead fire. The only overhead fire allowed is to or from a higher elevation on troops by artillery at long range.
6.    Enfilade fire. Roll double the dice if firing from behind the front edge of a line or at the head or tail of a march column.
7.    Generals. When a unit with a general attached loses a base in hand to hand combat or from firing, the attacker rolls on a d6. On a roll of 6 the general becomes a casualty and is removed.


4) Hand-to-Hand Combat

1.    Hand-to-hand combat is taken in turns, the charger rolls their attacks, and then the charged unit strikes back. Units striking back use the number of bases remaining from the charger’s attack to calculate the number of dice to roll.
2.    Zero casualties. Artillery units never inflict casualties in hand-to-hand combat. They may therefore never declare a charge.
3.    Light Infantry under cover (in woods or a town) defends as if it is a Close Order Infantry unit.
4.    Charging Artillery units. Artillery units may only be charged if the target unit has no friendly Close Order Infantry units within very short.
Artillery is automatically eliminated in hand-to-hand combat.
5.    Close Order Infantry. These have the following restrictions:
1.    They may never charge Heavy Cavalry or Light Cavalry
2.    Other Close Order Infantry may only be charged if the attacker is of equal or superior strength to the defender (in terms of bases remaining) at the time the charge is declared.
3.    Light Infantry, Dragoon and Tribal Cavalry units may be charged without restrictions.
4.    Units in Column only fight with the front element.

5.    Scoring Hits. Roll a variable number of dice for each base in the unit. Every base rolls one d6 and adds any additional dice as specified below. A hit is scored on a 4-6. Remove a base if the total number of hits for the class are reached (other hits are carried over until the next combat is resolved).

6.    An additional number of dice are rolled if your unit is:
1.    Charging (+2d6)
2.    Fighting a staggered opponent (+2d6)
3.    A close order unit attacking light infantry (+2d6)
4.    A close order mounted unit against light cavalry (+1d6)
5.    Defending field works (+2d6)
6.    Attacking an enemy flank, rear, or close order troops in March Column. (+2d6)
7.    On higher ground than their opponent. (+1d6)
8.    Defending a riverbank, Ford or Bridge against attackers who are crossing to engage them frontally. (+1d6)
9.    General is attached to the unit (+1d6)
10.  Unit is elite (+1d6)
11.  Each supporting unit within very short of flank or rear, up to a maximum of 3. (+1d6)

7.    Saving Rolls.
1.    Units (defending) in cover receive a saving roll of 4-6 for every potential hit.
2.    If a Close Order Infantry unit is charged frontally by cavalry, it enjoys the benefit of a saving roll that varies according to the number of bases remaining (note that units reduced to a single base do not receive this advantage against mounted attackers).
Infantry Formation
Bases Remaining

4
3
2
Line
3-6
5-6
6
Column
6
-
-




8.    Retreat. After a round of hand-to-hand combat, the losing unit must withdraw. It must retreat a half move directly to the rear, facing the enemy.
9.    Blocked Retreat. If any unit blocks the route of retreat, the retreating unit interpenetrates it and ends its retreat on the far side of the unit from the opponent that forced it to retreat. It is destroyed if it meets enemies.
10.  Ties. If a hand-to-hand combat results in a tied result, the defending unit usually retreats. The only exception is when a Town or Fieldworks are being defended; in this case the attacker retreats.
11.  Generals. When a unit with a general attached loses a base in hand to hand combat or from firing, the attacker rolls on a d6. On a roll of 6 the general becomes a casualty and is removed.


5) Morale
1.    Morale is based on the number of elements in the unit:
4 elements – Unit is OK
3 elements – Unit is OK
2 elements – unit is staggered and may not advance within range of enemy fire
1 element – the unit is destroyed and removed from play

Artillery only consist of 1 element and are in good morale until destroyed.



RULES CONVENTIONS
1.    Movement.
a.     There are no special restrictions for wheeling in close proximity to enemy units.
b.    Compulsory actions are performed like normal moves and adhere to terrain restrictions.
c.     A unit cannot move through a gap between two other units which is less than the unit’s current frontage wide.
2.    Shooting.
a.     Shooting at units engaged in hand-to-hand combat is never allowed.
b.    Units must target the closest enemy unless it is engaged in melee or obscured by friends.
3.    Hand-to-hand Combat.
a.     Any contact, even with a unit’s corner, brings on a hand-to-hand combat in which all of each unit’s bases fight. 
b.    A retreat from hand-to-hand combat must be directly to the rear with no deviation.
4.    Retreat. There is no deviation to the direction and distance moved. If the unit meets impassable terrain it is eliminated. Passable terrain modifies movement of the retreat as per normal movement.




SPECIAL RULES
1.    Capture the Colours. During the 18th Century the number of enemy colours captured, along with artillery pieces, began to become a measure of victory. To lose one was considered a disgrace. This special rule only applies to Close Order Infantry and Heavy Cavalry units. If one of these units is destroyed in hand-to-hand combat the victor may roll a die and if a 6 is scored the colours are captured. If a unit retires from hand to hand combat the victor may roll two dice and capture the colours on a roll of 12. Colours can be recaptured once they have been lost using identical rules. Captured colours count as victory points at the end of a game.
2.    Woods. Where both units are inside firing is limited to very short and to fire out or to be fired upon the unit must be within very short of the wood’s edge. Units must be entirely within the wood to receive the benefit of cover from firing. Cavalry may not attack units inside woods.
3.    Towns. Towns possess four sides and units may fire and perform defensive fire from any of the sides with all their bases. Units defend towns on all sides counting these as their front edge and defend with all their bases. Cavalry may not attack units occupying towns.
4.    Fieldworks. Only Infantry may enter or leave fieldworks and it takes a complete turn for them to do so. A maximum of one unit may occupy a section of fieldworks which is two bases wide. Troops occupying and attacking fieldworks adopt a consolidated frontage of two bases. Units may fire and perform defensive fire from fieldworks with all their bases and count as in cover for shooting and hand-to-hand combat. Units defend with all their bases and fight with one extra dice per base in hand-to-hand combat.  Cavalry may not attack units occupying fieldworks. Fieldwork sections breached by artillery lose their fortification status i.e. extra dice. Any section hit by artillery is breached on a 6 result rolled on one D6.
5.    Time of battle. Roll a d6. The battle takes place at:
1 – night; 2 – early morning; 3,4,5 - midday; 6 - late afternoon
If night is rolled, roll a d6 each turn. On a 5 or 6 dawn breaks and it is early morning. Roll for weather on the early morning table.
6.    Weather. Once the time has been determined, roll a second d6 and consult the table below:
D6 roll
Night
Early Morning
Midday
Late Afternoon
1
Pouring Rain, dark night
Pouring rain
Pouring rain
Pouring rain
2
Showers, dark night
Showers
Showers
Showers
3
Clear, no moon
Dense Fog
Showers
Showers
4
Clear, no moon
Light mist
Overcast
Overcast
5
Clear, full moon
Overcast
Clear, bright
Clear, bright
6
Clear, full moon
Clear, bright
Clear, bright
Clear, bright
In summer, add +1 to d6 roll. In winter, rain becomes snow.
7.    Effects of weather.
Pouring rain – When firing only 6s will hit anything. Visibility is reduced to medium.
Showers – When firing subtract 1 from all dice rolls. Full visibility.
Dense fog – Visibility is reduced to Short
Light mist – Visibility is reduced to Medium
Overcast – every turn roll a d6. On a roll of 1 the weather will turn to showers. Continue rolling die. The showers will cease on another roll of 1.
Clear, bright – no effects on game play.
Blizzard (Winter Pouring rain) – Visibility is reduced to short (10cm). All rivers are frozen over and can be crossed by all troops.
Snow (Winter showers) – visibility is reduced to long. All rivers are lightly frozen and may only be crossed by infantry. When crossed, roll a d6 for each unit. On a 1 the ice cracks and the unit loses d6 hits.
Dark night – visibility is very short
No moon – visibility is short
Full moon – visibility is medium











Command and Control for opposition in solo games

1. Deployment by Brigade:
            Infantry –    1 = left flank
                             2 = right flank
                             3,4,5 = centre
                             6 = reserve
          Cavalry -        1-2 = left flank
                             3-4 = right flank
                             5 = centre
                             6 = reserve

2. Tactical Stance by Brigade
1-2 Defensive; 3-4 cautious; 5-6 Aggressive
+1 to die roll if Prussian

Defensive general’s priorities:
1. Hold position
2. Maintain cohesion of support within Brigade.
3. Counterattack if successful in defending position on a die roll of 5-6.

Cautious general’s priorities:
1. manoeuvre so as to hold a strong defensive line for the army.
2. Maintain cohesion within the Brigade and with neighbouring brigades.
3. Counterattack if successful in driving off enemy attack on a die roll of 2-6.

Aggressive general’s priorities:
1. Manoeuvre into a position to attack opponents.
2. Maintain cohesion of support within Brigade.
3. Seek support of other brigades if defeated in combat and act in support of their stance from then on.



Seven Years War Army Lists 1756-63


PRUSSIAN ARMY        
Command: Above average
Unit                             Type                                                                Number per army
Guard Infantry (Close Order Infantry, Elite)                                                                  0-1
Grenadiers (Close Order Infantry, Elite)                                                                                   0-2
Musketeers (Close Order Infantry, Average)                                                                2-4
Fusiliers (Close Order Infantry, Average)                                                                      1-2
Freikorps (Light Infantry, Levy)                                                                                                0-2
Jaegers (Light Infantry, Average, Rifles)                                                                       0-1
Cuirassiers (Heavy Cavalry, Elite)                                                                                 1-3
Dragoons (Heavy Cavalry, Average)                                                                             1-3
Hussars (Light Cavalry, Average, Carbines)                                                                  0-2
Artillery            (Average)                                                                                                        1-4

Special Rules
·         High Fire Discipline: Prussian foot were noted for their fire discipline. For all Close Order Infantry with the exception of Fusiliers, they gain a +1 DRM when rolling for hits.


AUSTRIAN ARMY
Command: Average
Unit Type                                                                                            Number per army
Grenadiers (Close Order Infantry, Elite)                                                                       0-3
Fusiliers (Close             Order Infantry, Average)                                                                      2-8
Grenzers (Light Infantry, Average)                                                                               1-4
Cuirassiers (Heavy Cavalry, Average)                                                                          1-3
Dragoons (Heavy Cavalry, Average)                                                                             1-3
Hussars (Light Cavalry, Average, Carbines)                                                                  1-2
Artillery            (Average)                                                                                                        1-4

Great Northern War Army Lists 1701-1721

RUSSIAN ARMY
Command: Below average
Unit Type                                                                                            Number per army
Guard (Close Order Infantry, Elite)                                                                               0-2
Musketeers (Close Order Infantry, Average)                                                                0-2
Musketeers (Close Order Infantry, Levy)                                                                      3-6
Dragoons (Cavalry, Average, carbines)                                                                         1-3
Cossacks (Tribal Cavalry, Average, Carbines)                                                                0-1
Artillery            (Average)                                                                                                        0-3

Special Rules
·         Field entrenchments. Russian armies may deploy up to 3 fieldworks.


SWEDISH ARMY
Command: Above average
Unit Type                                                                                            Number per army
Guard Infantry (Close Order Infantry, Elite, Crack troops)                                            0-1
Line Infantry (Close Order Infantry, Elite)                                                                     2-5
Cavalry (Heavy Cavalry, Elite)                                                                                       0-2
Dragoons (Heavy Cavalry, Elite, carbines)                                                                    0-2
Artillery            (Average)                                                                                                        0-1

Special Rules
·         Aggressive. All units except artillery may re-roll hand-to-hand combat misses in their first hand to hand combat of the game.
·         Charge move bonus. A Swedish close order infantry unit in line may charge Medium.
·         Crack troops. Guards roll an extra d6 per base in combat with any foot.





War of Spanish Succession Lists 1701-13


GRAND ALLIANCE ARMY
Command: Average
Unit                             Type                                                                Number per army
Guard Infantry (Close Order Infantry, Elite)                                                                  0-2
Musketeers (Close Order Infantry, Average)                                                                2-8
Horse (Heavy Cavalry, Elite)                                                                                         1-3
Dragoons (Heavy Cavalry, Average)                                                                             1-3
Hussars (Light Cavalry, Average, Carbines)                                                                  0-1
Artillery (Average)                                                                                                        1-4

BOURBON ARMY
Command: 50% Average, 50% Below Average
Unit Type                                                                                            Number per army
Guard Infantry (Close Order Infantry, Elite)                                                                  0-2
Musketeers (Close Order Infantry, Average)                                                                2-8
Horse (Heavy Cavalry, Elite)                                                                                         1-3
Dragoons (Heavy Cavalry, Average)                                                                             1-3
Hussars (Light Cavalry, Average, Carbines)                                                                  0-1
Artillery            (Average)                                                                                                        1-4





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